الرئيسية / مقالات / الثروة السمكية الصومالية بين النهب والبطالة
الثروة السمكية الصومالية بين النهب والبطالة
الثروة السمكية الصومالية بين النهب والبطالة

الثروة السمكية الصومالية بين النهب والبطالة

كتب: عبدالنور سعيد حسن

بعدما تحدثت احد مقالتي السابقة عن النهب الثروة السمكية في السواحل الصومالية بطريقة غير الشرعية من قبل السفن الاجنبية, والتي حذرت الحكومة الصومالية مرات عديدة , حيث كانت اخر انذار اعلنت في الاوائل شهر ابريل 2020م عندما نددت الحكومة الفيدرالية في الصومال بانتهاكات سفن صيد إيرانية ومن جنسيات أخرى لمياهها الإقليمية دون الحصول على التصريح اللازم، محذرة من أن ذلك قد يتسبب في عودة القرصنة.

وفي هذا مضمار يتسأل بعض هل هناك علاقة ما بين القراصنة و صيد سفن الاجنبية تحت هذا موضوع   سوف نوضح وبشكل سریع عن القراصنة الصومالية و السفن التي تصطاد بطريقة غير قانونية في المياه الصومالية وتأثيرات سلبية القرصنة الصومالية سواء كانت المعنوية والمادية.

وظالما ركزت المناقشات حول القرصنة الصومالية عادة على كيفية تأثير القرصنة على المجتمع الدولي، ولكن نادرا ما توجد دراسات او المناقشات حول الرأي او المواقف  للسكان المحليين تجاه القرصنة .  فتشير دراسة اجريت مؤخرا ولذلك من أجل إعطاء فرصة او صوت لمواقف السكان تجاه القرصنة حتي يسمع العالم.

حيث تقول فيه  دراسة بعدما عملت عدة مقابلات للسكان المحليين في المناطق الساحلية ان الصيد غير المشروع والبطالة هما العاملان الرئيسيان الّواهما الّتي جعلتا الصيادين والشباب يتورطون في القرصنة كوسيلة بديلة للحصول على خبزهم اليوميّ, ووفقاً لسكان المناطق الساحلية، فإن الصيد غير القانوني الواسع النطاق يلحق أضراراً بعدة طرق.

ومن الواضح أن “سفن الصيد الأجنبية” تتنافس مباشرة على الأسماك مع المجتمعات المحلية، بما في ذلك تلك التي يكون فيها الصيد هو مصدر الرزق التقليدي والوحيد. وقد تحرم المخزونات المستنفدة السكان المحليين ليس فقط من الدخل النادر، بل الغذاء أيضاً. كما يتعرض الصيادين للخطر تدمير معداتهم او سرقت القواربهم الصغيرة أو قطع شباك الصياد المحلية. وبصرف النظر عن الخطر المادي، فإن التأثير الاقتصادي كبير حيث استبدال شبكة واحدة قد يكلف صياد السمك دخل شهر أو أكثر.

كما اضاف اثناء مقابلة احد صيادين و الدي يدعي يوسف فيشران “القوات البحرية الدولية في بحرنا موجودون لمصلحهم خاصه . يقولون أننا نحرس بحركم، لكن الحقيقة هي أنهم منخرطون في استغلال مواردنا في البحر. إنهم يحمون سفن الصيد في بحرنا وإذا قررنا أن نتصرف ضد هؤلاء، فإنهم سيدافعون عنهم .

اما كيفية نشأة القرصنة الصومالية فكانت عندما قامت بعض الصيادين المحليين المستائين من السفن التي تجوب في مناطقهم و تنهب ثرواتهم وتمنعهم من الحصول لقمة عيشهم , ببعض المحاولات البدائية للهجوم علي السفن المعتدية .

و علي الرغم ان بعضهم كان يتمكن من الاختطاف بعض اهل السفن , الا أن الامر كان ينتهي بسرعة , اد لم تمكن القرصنة حينئذ عملا منظما بقدر ما كانت احتجاجا علي التصرفات السفن الغازية .

غير انه سرعان ما دخلت عملية النهب للثروات مرحلة جديدة من العمل المقنن , عن طريق اتفاق الشركات الاجنبية مع بعض المتنفذين  في مناطق مختلفة , بزعم حمايتها للسواحل الصومالية بعيدا عن اي قانون او عرف. وايضا كان هناك عقود ما بين بين زعماء ولايات و بعض شركات الاجنبية لأجل حصول رخص المزاولة بأعمالهم بشرط التزامهم بممارسة ما سمي عمليات الصيد سلمية. وكان هدف حصول رخص هذه الشركات اضاف الشرعية علي عمليات السرقة لثروتنا البحرية , بالاضافة الي منع المجموعات الصغيرة التي لا تسندها قوي او شركات نافذة من حصول حصتها من الغنيمة . وعلي رغم ضخامة هذا المقال سوف اختصر من هنا , وسوف لنا لقاء اخر الدي سنتحدث عنه ان شاء الله  اسباب ظهور القرصنة الصومالية واثار القرصنة  البحرية في الصومال سواء كان الاثار المعنوية و المادية والبيئية والاقتصادية.

 

 

 

 

 

 

عن عبدالنور سعيد - الصومال

م. عبدالنور سعيد حسن، خريج كلية الزراعة جامعة الأزهر قسم البيئة والزراعة الحيوية، من الصومال ومقيم فى مصر، كاتب بالعديد من المواقع المعنية بالتنمية المستدامة والبيئة والمناخ national director human nature projects international in Somalia و عضو climate reality leadership in Africa

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يسلط هذا المقال الضوء علي قضية “القومية” لدي شعب الصومالي وهي نزاع حدودي بحري ظهر …

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